January 28th - February 3rd NIH.Gov Updates On ADHD - Part 2

January 28th - February 3rd NIH.Gov Updates On ADHD - Part 2

In the provided articles from NIH.gov ADHD is covered across a range of topics and associated conditions, exploring treatments, genetic factors, brain development, reading disorders, medication use during the pandemic, rare genetic disorders, prenatal exposure effects, bias in AI, and more. Here's a simplified summary:

  1. Methylphenidate for Internet Gaming Disorder and Addiction in ADHD: A study investigated the efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) in treating Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and Internet Addiction (IA) in patients with ADHD. The study found no significant impact of MPH on reducing IGD/IA symptoms, suggesting that while MPH may be effective for ADHD symptoms, it might not directly influence IGD/IA symptom reduction.

  2. Polygenic Variations and Executive Functions: Research explored the relationship between genetic variations associated with ADHD, educational attainment, and cognitive abilities with executive functions in children. The study indicated that genetic factors related to ADHD and educational attainment significantly correlate with executive function behaviors, affecting academic performance.

  3. Brain Development in ADHD Using Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging: A study utilizing diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) revealed abnormal gray matter and white matter development in certain brain regions of children with ADHD, offering insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of ADHD.

  4. Understanding Dyslexia: This article highlighted the challenges of dyslexia, a reading disorder where individuals struggle to connect speech sounds to letters and words. It emphasized the importance of early intervention and tailored instruction to prevent the disorder from impacting educational and psychological well-being.

  5. Drug Utilization During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An analysis across three European countries showed changes in medication use among children and adolescents during the pandemic, with an increase in the dispensing of psychotropic medications, especially among adolescents, raising concerns about mental health impacts.

  6. Treatment of Psychiatric Comorbidities in Coffin-Siris Syndrome: A case report discussed the therapeutic interventions for psychiatric comorbidities in a child with Coffin-Siris syndrome, highlighting the importance of considering family interaction patterns in treatment.

  7. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes After Prenatal Exposure to Lamotrigine: A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children exposed to lamotrigine during pregnancy, finding no significant association with most neurodevelopmental disorders but suggesting an increased risk of psychomotor developmental disorders.

  8. Bias Against Neurodivergence in AI Language Models: Research investigated bias in artificial intelligence (AI) language models against terms related to neurodivergent conditions, finding high levels of negative associations, which raises concerns about AI fairness and bias.

  9. DDX3X-Related Disorders: Two series reported on individuals with DDX3X variations, providing insights into symptoms and emphasizing the need for addressing ADHD, anxiety, and sleep disorders as worrisome symptoms.

  10. Pediatric Obesity Phenotypes: A study identified four unique phenotypes of pediatric patients with obesity based on appetitive and psychological traits, suggesting tailored treatment plans could improve outcomes.

  11. Restless Legs Syndrome and Psychiatric Comorbidities: This article reviewed the presentation and treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) in children with psychiatric comorbidities, underscoring the challenge of diagnosing and treating sleep disorders in this population.

  12. Prevalence of Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A study estimated the prevalence of pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms (pLUTS) in a privately insured US population, providing demographic and clinical characteristics and emphasizing the need for further research in publicly insured populations.

Each of these studies adds valuable knowledge to the understanding and management of ADHD and associated conditions, highlighting the complexity of treatment, the role of genetic and environmental factors, and the importance of early detection and personalized approaches to care.

Articles Read and Analyzed For this Update:
Efficacy of Methylphenidate for Internet Gaming Disorder and Internet Addiction in Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Polygenic Variation Underlying Educational Attainment and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Indexes Behavior Ratings of Executive Functions in Child Psychiatry Outpatients

Diffusion kurtosis imaging reveals abnormal gray matter and white matter development in some brain regions of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Decoding Dyslexia - Helping Kids Who Struggle With Reading

Drug utilisation in children and adolescents before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic: Interrupted time-series analyses in three European countries

Treatment of psychiatric comorbidities and interaction patterns in Coffin-Siris syndrome: A case report of a 4-year-old girl

Neurodevelopmental outcomes after prenatal exposure to lamotrigine monotherapy in women with epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Prevalence of bias against neurodivergence-related terms in artificial intelligence language models

Lessons from two series by physicians and caregivers' self-reported data in DDX3X-related disorders

Appetitive and psychological phenotypes of pediatric patients with obesity

Restless Legs Syndrome in Children and Adolescents

Prevalence of pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms in a national claims database of privately insured patients, 2003-2014

Reading next

ADHD in Kids: A Gateway to Understanding Mental Health Challenges
ADHD Meds: Not the Classroom Magic Bullet We Thought?

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